The brief description of each theory are as follows: 1. 1. (iii) It laid too much emphasis on innovative functions. He regarded the entrepreneurship as a catalyst who checks the static conditions of the economy, there by initiates and thrusts a process of economic development i.e., innovation. Whenever there is a withdrawal of status respect, it would give rise to birth of innovation of a creative individual who is likely to be an entrepreneur. When there are sufficient number of persons having the same psychological characteristics in the society, then there are bright chances of development of entrepreneurship. The supporters of sociological theory says that the entrepreneurial activities is affected from social status hierarchy and values. (ii) The introduction of a new method of production, that one not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned, which need by no means be founded upon a discovery scientifically new and can also exist in a new way of handling a commodity commercially. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. When group do not make approach upto effective social machinery. This theory supports two other theories i.e. A drive to influence others and situations. Labour structure- The labour structure is directed by several factors such as source of livelihood, traditional outlook and life ambitions. The theories attempt to define entrepreneurship and its origins. Organization is the coordinating factor that brings together the other three factors and entrepreneurship is the element that powers and strengthens the organization. 4. Schumpeter’s entrepreneur is a large scale businessman, who is rarely found in developing countries, where entrepreneurs are small scale businessmen who need to imitate rather than innovate. But no attempts were made by economists for formulating systematic theory of entrepreneurship. These three aspects are nature of opportunities, the nature of entrepreneurs, and the nature of decision making framework within which an entrepreneur functions. Presented By – Mayank Vashishth and Mohit Dubey Semester III (MBA – M52) MONIRBA, University of Allahabad 2. In traditional societies, position of authority are granted on the basis of status, rather than individual ability. In India, first generation entrepreneurs are quite successful in their entrepreneurial behaviour. of Economics and International Studies . That is why he visualised an innovative personality. It explains how a traditional society becomes one in which continuing technical progress takes place. Kunkel’s theory is concerned with the expressed activities of individuals and their relations to the previous and present surroundings, social structures, physical conditions and behavioural patterns determined by reinforcing and opposing present in the context. Cocharn emphasises cultural values, role expectations and social sanctions as the key elements that determine the supply of entrepreneurs. Behavioural model concerned with the overtly expressed activities of individuals and their relations to the previous and present surroundings, social structures and physical conditions. The concept of x-efficiency is also used in the theory of bureaucracy. Theory of Social Behaviour 6. He describes an entrepreneur as a creative problem shooter interested in things in the practical and technological realm. According to them social sanctions, cultural values and role expectations are responsible for the emergence of entrepreneurship. According to this theory, the entrepreneurs emerges because of individuals having certain psychological elements i.e., will power, self-intuitions, tolerance capacity. Psychological Theory 11. The theory assumes the ideal structures for the supply of entrepreneurs. It was Max Weber who first of all took the stand that entrepreneurial growth was dependent upon ethical value system of the society concerned. Its importance for the economy is reflected in its visible growth as a subject of in-terest for the economic press and … Potential entrepreneurs are also opting for enterprise development without cringe for social or cultural restrictions. This paper examines six entrepreneurship theories with underlying empirical studies. An Entrepreneur is the risk bearer and works under uncertainty. Management, Entrepreneurship, Theories of Entrepreneurship. Although theorists cannot agree on traditional definition of an entrepreneur, they do, however, agree on the importance of entrepreneur’s role and responsibility in society and in the economy. Introduction of new methods of production. In business, there are generally three types of leadership—merchant money lenders, managers and entrepreneurs. Notably, as these changes occur, consumers change their preferences. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. They think that only group entrepreneurs have the capacity of extension of entrepreneurial activities due to the character of capacity to react. It refers to one’s desire to influence and dominate other through use of authority. (3) Inconsistency of status symbols with a changing distribution of economic power. v. Schumpeter remained silent about as to why some economists had more entrepreneurial talent than others. C. McClelland. (i) Retreatist – One who combines to work in the society but remains indifferent to his work and position. Thus, the creative theory suggests that opportunities are subjective, individuals are ordinary, and entrepreneurs are uncertainty-bearers. The theory only suggests that the people who had enjoyed social standing at some stage in their histories fall into a retreatist phase with an urge to regain the lost status and emerge as an entrepreneurship personality. i. McClelland and his associates have found that people with high power needs have a great concern for exercising influence and control. Share Your Word File
The operational requirements of the job. 167). 3. This theory emphasizes on two types of entrepreneurial activities i.e.- (i) Entrepreneurial functions like organization and combination of resources for creating viable enterprises, and (ii) The responsiveness to the environmental condition that influences decision making function besides the above mentioned activities. Schumpeter’s theory of entrepreneurship is a pioneering work of economic development. An entrepreneur is neither technical man nor a capitalist but simply an innovator. Further if different prices prevail in the same market, there in an opportunity for profitable arbitrage between two segments. According to M. Kirzner, the chief role of entrepreneur is based upon the adjustment of price in the market. The accepted are rewarded. ii. McClelland theory is not free from criticism: 1. (v) It fails to provide a suitable answer to question like— why some countries had more entrepreneurial talent than others? These forces influence the entrepreneurial activities of an individual to a great extent. According to him, an inventor discovers new methods and new materials. New market. c. Individuals bear uncertainty not risk. Reactive status transforms the group into an entrepreneur. 2. Thus, this theory fails to provide suitable solutions to the problems. The theory emphasizes on innovation and excludes the risk taking and organizing aspects. Internal forces refer to the internal qualities of the individual such as intelligence, skill, knowledge experience, intuition, exposure, etc. Creation theory focuses on entrepreneurs and the creation of enterprises. According to Kirzner, “A typical entrepreneur is the arbitras, the person who discovers opportunities, the person who discovers opportunities at low prices and sells the same at high prices because of intertemporary and inter- partial demand.”. 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