For He who said, “Do not commit adultery,” also said, “Do not commit murder.” Now if you do not commit adultery, but do commit murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. Romans 13:1–7, 1 Peter 4:15, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book 4, Chapter 20, Romans 13:4 and commentary, The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1995 p. 2240. Deuteronomy 5:17: Thou shalt not kill. And every life, beginning at conception, is not only given by God, but also taken by God at His choosing. And of these the first is that of respecting their life. The Bible confirms that God ordered the killing of thousands of people. Answer: We can discover the meaning of this "covet" commandment by looking in Exodus 20. is the word in the original text that is translated as "murder", but it has a wider range of meanings, generally describing destructive activity, including meanings "to break, to dash to pieces" as well as "to slay, kill, murder". Justified killing: due consequence for crime, Suicide, euthanasia, health, intoxication, Reformation and Post-Reformation doctrines, Commentary on Exodus 20, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 150, The Ten Commandments, William Barclay, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, p. 52, The Ten Commandments, G. Cambell Morgan, Flaming H. Revell, 1901, pp.  The profession of soldier is used as a metaphor by Paul exhorting the Ephesians to "put on the full armor of God. Being that nakah does carry this variety of nuances, it is erroneous to allege that there is some contradiction in Scripture over nakah. The context always determines the meaning, and the type of killing in Exodus 20:13 refers specifically to murder (see Matthew 19:18). “You shall not murder” was not designed to give His children the right to choose. In Genesis 14, God directed Abraham to do battle with the king to rescue his nephew, Lot. Here it is: The sixth commandment, "Thou shalt not kill" can aptly be translated, "Thou shalt not murder!". Save the pursued at the cost of the life of the pursuer (Deuteronomy 25:12) The second observation that should be made is that the sixth commandment, "Thou shalt not kill," is not a prohibition against capital punishment. The Bible never uses the word retzach in conjunction with war. In Hebrew the ten commandments are all in the singular. Calvin asserts that the same rule must also be applied in regulating the mind against anger, arguing that since God sees the heart and mind, the commandment against shedding innocent blood also prohibits murder of the heart and requires a sincere desire to preserve our brother's life. Here it is: The sixth commandment, "Thou shalt not kill" can aptly be translated, "Thou shalt not murder!" 13 Thou shalt not kill. A man's house is his castle, and God's law, as well as man's, sets a guard upon it; he that assaults it does so at his peril. 490. The Hebrew Bible has many other examples of sinners being put to death as due consequence for crimes. Exodus 20:13-16 King James Version (KJV).  The use of drugs, except on strictly therapeutic grounds is a grave offense. ." 'Thou shalt not kill:' Manitoba premier quotes Bible to anti-mask protesters 2020-11-17 Uncertainty looms for refugees seeking a pandemic-era fresh start in Canada In the Talmud, Genesis 9:5 is interpreted as a prohibition against killing oneself, and Genesis 9:6 is "cited in support for the prohibition of abortion. In August 2018 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith with the approval of Pope Francis changed paragraph 2267 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church and declared that the death penalty is always regarded as inadmissible. Contrary to what we hear and/or believe, they are not interchangeable! The hand does not commit the murder unless it is conceived by the mind under the influence of wrath and hatred. The reason why the King James Bible says “Thou shalt not kill” is that God forbids all instances of any human taking the life of another person. 5:22. Matthew Henry considered the commandment against killing to apply to both one's own life as well as the life of one's neighbor and considered it to apply not only to causing of death but also to prohibit any thing unjustly hurtful to or injurious to the health, ease, and life of one's own body or the body of any other person. any graven image . The reason why the King James Bible says “Thou shalt not kill” is that God forbids all instances of any human taking the life of another person. , Like the Old Testament, the New Testament seems to depict the lawful use of force by soldiers in legitimate battles as justified. Thou shalt not steal. “Thou shalt not kill” is a directive to humans, not God giving a command or rule to Himself. //This is one of the ten commandments. “Thou shalt not kill” isn’t a controversial mitzvah until it is used as a proof text to forbid abortion. , The Catechism states that abortion is a grave moral evil because the act takes an innocent human life: human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live simply meant to kill all witches. ", The Catholic Catechism urges prayer for the avoidance of war. Contrary to what we hear and/or believe, they are not interchangeable! As a result, Moses said that the Levites had received a blessing that day at the cost of son and brother.  The Bible often praises the exploits of soldiers against enemies in legitimate battle. Killing may, under limited circumstances, be justified within Catholicism. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt … However, a person should not use more force than necessary to repel an attack.  When Jesus appeared before Pilate, both Pilate and the crowd recognize the principles of bloodguilt. Shalt Not Kill. John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible. ( Deut. 17 Thou shalt not kill. If the intended meaning of “Thou shalt not kill” was just that—no killing—it would render all of the God-endorsed bloodletting done by the nation of Israel a violation of God’s own commandment (Deuteronomy 20).  An Ohio prosecutor publicly declared that he disagrees with that, while Catholic US scholars drafted an appeal against the change and declared it "scandalous". Don't cause loss of human life (through negligence) (Deuteronomy 22:8) In a more detailed teaching, Martin Luther explains that God and government are not constrained by the commandment not to kill, but that God has delegated his authority in punishing evildoers to the government. It does not forbid killing in lawful war, or in our own necessary defence, nor the magistrate’s putting offenders to death, for those things tend to the preserving of life; but it forbids all malice and hatred to the person of any (for he that hateth his brother is a murderer), and all personal revenge arising therefrom; also all rash anger upon sudden provocations, and hurt said or done, or aimed to be done, in passion: of this our Saviour expounds this commandment, Mt. It is forbidden to execute a murderer before he has stood trial, as it says "And the murderer shall not die until he stands before the congregation for judgment" (Numbers 35:12).  Rabbi Dr. Azriel Rosenfeld offers a representative modern summary of Jewish teaching regarding the command not to murder. A better one would be THOU SHALT NOT DO MURDER. It has declared, "The church... accepts the validity of a person's refusal to engage in military service if he or she is convinced that participation in a military conflict amounts to the transgression of God's commandment 'You shall not kill'. ", Legitimate defense is depicted as justifiable, even if the defender deals his aggressor a lethal blow. Jewish law views the shedding of innocent blood very seriously, and lists murder as one of three sins (along with idolatry and sexual immorality) that fall under the category of yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let himself be killed rather than violate it. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. " Jesus was quick to correct his servant for the improper use of the sword in cutting off the ear of the high-priest's servant. --From the peculiar duties owed by children to their parents, the Divine legislator went on to lay down those general duties which men owe to their fellow-men. Thou shalt not make . 15 Thou shalt not steal. For starters, "You shall not kill" is a mistranslation -- the original Hebrew phrase means "You shall not murder." However, the word kill is a translation of the Hebrew word ratsach, which nearly always refers to intentional killing without cause. by Rich Deem Introduction. ", In The Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin viewed the purport of this commandment as the safety of all being entrusted to each person. All violence and injustice, and every kind of harm from which our neighbor's body suffers is thereby prohibited. Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Help him load his beast (Deuteronomy 22:4) 489. This commandment is sometimes brought up publically in a variety of ways, but more recently it is when someone wants to make a political statement. Many modern Calvinists, such as André Trocmé and Jacques Ellul, have been pacifists. "Thou shalt not commit adultery", one of the Ten Commandments, is found in the Book of Exodus (Exodus 20:14) of the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. Christians are therefore required to faithfully perform that which is within their power to defend the life of their neighbor, be vigilant in warding off harm, and assist in removing danger when it comes. If God exterminates any person or persons, then it is just, and He knows when it needs to happen, according to His plans and purposes in predestinational reality (this will be discussed more below, also see Grupp 2018a, 2018b for more information). The third commandment: "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain," corresponds to the eighth: "Thou shalt not steal," for stealing result in false oath in God's name. Both of them—Abner son of Ner, commander of Israel's army, and Amasa son of Jether, commander of Judah's army—were better men and more upright than he. It was intended to stress the fact that life is sacred, that God alone gives life, and that no individual has the right to arbitrarily take it from another person.  When John the Baptist was preaching repentance and baptizing penitent sinners in the Jordan river, soldiers came to John and asked for specific instructions regarding their repentance. Chapter 68. Jesus said that murder comes from the heart, and Christ went even beyond the sixth commandment when He said, "You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.' 5:17 ) If, though, you look up this text in many modern translations, you will likely find “You must not murder” or “You must not commit murder.” It is also important to notice that the battle was in self‑defense, not to simply take loot or territory belonging to another.  The basis of all Catholic teaching about the fifth commandment is the "sanctity of life", which is often contrasted with the "quality of life" to some extent. 9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. " The 1948, 1958 and 1968 conferences re-ratified this position. the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave, and certain; all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; there must be serious prospects of success; the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. It costs a lot of money, and it can be hard on your health. English Revised Version Thou shalt do no murder. "The commandment that 'Thou shalt not kill' refers to murder", God Squad, http://www.halakhah.com/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_74.html, http://www.halakhah.com/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_57.html, http://www.torah.org/learning/halacha-overview/chapter68.html, http://www.reformed.org/books/institutes/books/book4/bk4ch20.html, "Faithful Citizenship, A Catholic Call to Political Responsibility", "Catechism of the Catholic Church §§2258,2261,2268", https://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a5.htm, "Catechism of the Catholic Church §§2263–2264", Pope Francis changes Catholic teaching to oppose death penalty, saying capital punishment 'attacks' human dignity, Vatican changes Catechism teaching on death penalty, calls it ‘inadmissible’, Prosecutor disagrees with Pope Francis’s death penalty ruling, An Appeal to the Cardinals of the Catholic Church, "Pope calls for worldwide abolition of death penalty", https://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P81.HTM, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/luther/smallcat.text.i.5.html, http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/catechism/web/cat-07.html, http://www.spurgeon.org/~phil/calvin/bk2ch08.html#thirtynin.htm, http://godstenlaws.com/ten-commandments/mh-commentary6.html, "Je suis un pacifiste chrétien. May the guilt of their blood rest on the head of Joab and his descendants forever. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility. See Deuteronomy 5:15–19 in the Bible. Set aside cities of refuge for those who commit accidental homicide (Deuteronomy 19:3) 14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. A number of sins were considered to be worthy of the death penalty including murder, incest, bearing false witness on a capital charge, adultery, idolatry, bestiality, child sacrifice to pagan gods, cursing a parent, fortune-telling, homosexuality, and other sins. A. [An]", http://www.biblestudytools.com/Commentaries/MatthewHenryConcise/, https://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a4.htm, Tanakh (Holy Scriptures), Jewish Publication Society (JPS) 1917, Explanation of Torah, Mishnah, Talmud versions, Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thou_shalt_not_kill&oldid=1000342285, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the population of cities outside of the Promised Land, if they surrender, should be made tributaries and left alive (20:10–11), those cities outside of the Promised Land that resist should be besieged, and once they fall, the male population should be exterminated, but the women and children should be left alive (20:12–15). Any way you look at it, war is a horrible, terrible thing. Legal justification marks a big difference between the two. 20:13 Thou shalt not kill — Thou shalt not do any thing hurtful to the health, or life of thy own body, or any other's. We should fear and love God so that we may not hurt or harm our neighbor in his body, but help and befriend him in every bodily need [in every need and danger of life and body]. Deuteronomy 20:10–18 establishes rules on killing civilians in warfare: As described in the Torah, the ancient understanding of the prohibition of murder made an exception for legitimate self-defense. A generally accepted principle among many professing Christian churches is that all aspects of the old covenant, including the ten commandments, served to point the nation of Israel to the coming sacrifice of Jesus Christ; once that sacrifice was made, the entire package of old covenant laws became obsolete. 14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. Genesis 14:20 says that God actually delivered the enemy into his hands. The practical inference to be drawn from the redemption and gift of Christ will be elsewhere considered. The Ten commandments say "Thou shalt not murder" (Exodus 20) but the New Testament Romans 13:9 says, "Thou shalt not kill". 495. One of David's mighty men is credited with killing eight hundred men with the spear, and Abishai is credited with killing three hundred men.. For example, the Exodus narrative describes the people as having turned to idolatry with the golden calf while Moses was on the mountain receiving the law from God. When Cain is driven into exile, complaining that "every one that findeth me shall slay me" in Genesis 4:14, he again uses this verb (h-r-g). The ancient Hebrew texts make a distinction between the moral and legal prohibition of shedding of innocent blood and killing in battle. What constitutes adultery is not plainly defined in this passage of the Bible, and has been the subject … Clandestine production and trafficking in drugs constitute "direct co-operation in evil. We have now completed both the spiritual and the temporal government, that is, the divine and the paternal authority and obedience. Eliezer Segal observes that the Septuagint uses the term harag, and that Augustine of Hippo recognized that this did not extend to wars or capital punishment. He is, in fact, life! Thou shalt not commit adultery. It was given when God gave his holy law, through Moses, to the children of Israel. According to the Book of Numbers, killing anyone outside the context of war with a weapon, or in unarmed combat, is considered retzach, but if the killing is accidental, the accused must flee to one of the cities of refuge—and remain in that city until the high priest dies, or the "revenger of blood" can kill the accused with no legal repercussions. Don't mislead with advice which is a stumbling block (Leviticus 19:14) . Guidelines for Living Mission Viejo, CA 92692 Therefore God and government are not included in this commandment nor is the power to kill, which they have taken away. The commandment against murder can be viewed as a legal issue governing human relationships, noting that the first four commandments relate strongly to man's duty to God and that the latter six commandments describe duties toward humans. 15 Thou shalt not steal. The Covenant Code and Holiness Code both prescribe the death penalty for people that commit n-k-h. Don't show pity for the pursuer (Numbers 35:12) . Is "kill" a valid translation of this word? 66–67, ’'The Ten Commandments,’’ G. Cambell Morgan, Flaming H. Revell, 1901, p. 69. This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 18:44. Literal meaning. Jesus was not condoning violence as the very next verse confirms it was to satisfy the prophecy of Isaiah 53 when he told his disciples to buy a sword if they do not have one, "now if you have a purse, take it, and also a bag; and if you don't have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one. It is “Thou shalt”, and not “Ye shall”. Therefore, what is here forbidden is forbidden to the individual in his relation to any one else, and not to the government. Exodus 21 mentions a number of offenses for which a person forfeited his right to life; and, remember if you would, that it was God who gave those commandments and injunctions. While Jerome had access to Jewish scholars, "even the Jewish translators were not unanimous in maintaining a consistent distinctions between the various Hebrew roots. Stories of Impact, 26161 Marguerite Pkwy Suite F The Torah portrays murder as a capital crime and describes a number of details in the moral understanding and legal implementation of consequences. Bookstore, 2020 Vision It is forbidden to murder, as it says "You shall not murder" (Exodus 20:13, Deuteronomy 5:17). Endangering others with excesses speed or drunkenness on the roadway incurs grave guilt. " Jewish law enumerates 613 Mitzvot, or commandments, including prohibition of murder and a number of other commandments related to the preserving of human life and administration of justice in cases of shedding of innocent blood. by Don Wilton September 2, 2013. Thus, we read: “I will kill and I will make to live.” It is, therefore, lawful for a judge to kill according to a mandate from God, since in this God operates, and every law is a command of God: “By Me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things.” And again: “For if thou dost that which is evil, fear; for he beareth not the sword in vain. ", Commentary on Genesis 9, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 25, Talmud b.B.K 91b, b Sanhedrin 57b, Matthew 5:21, Matthew 15:19, Matthew 19:19, Matthew 22:7, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20, Romans 13:9, 1 Timothy 1:9, James 2:11, Revelation 21:8, Matthew 23:30–35, Matthew 27:4, Luke 11:50–51, Romans 3:15, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24, Matthew 5:21, Matthew 19:19, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20. " This expresses the idea that those guilty of certain actions have brought the shedding of blood upon themselves, and those carrying out due punishment do not bear bloodguilt. The verse translated "Thou shalt not kill" in the KJV translation, is translated "You shall not murder" 2 in modern translations - because these translations represents the real meaning of the Hebrew text. “Kill” is generic but “murder” is specific. " One criminal on the cross contrasts his death as due punishment with Jesus' death as an innocent man. 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