This bill imposes sanctions on Chinese persons and entities that participate in certain activities related to China's territorial disputes in the South China Sea and East China Sea … However, Singapore hopes that China will obey international laws.  Also in 2012, Secretary Clinton testified in support of congressional approval of the Law of the Sea Convention, which would strengthen U.S. ability to support countries that oppose Chinese claims to certain islands in the area.  The 1995 statement did not name any states by their names. According to the rule, China’s historical claim to the South China Sea, or the “nine-dash line” claim, has no legal basis. The South China Sea dispute explained More than half-a-dozen countries have been drawn into an argument over the control of a waterway that serves as an important trade route and is rich in natural resources.  On 11 June 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines issued Presidential decree No. 1596, declaring the north-western part of the Spratly Islands (referred to therein as the Kalayaan Island Group) as Philippine territory. In the field of international investment law, China is increasingly prepared to subject disputes to international arbitration.  In 2014 and 2015, the United States continued freedom of navigation operations, including in the South China Sea. But by the early 1970s, the claimants were at it once again.  The legacy of the nine-dash line is viewed by some PRC government officials, and by the PRC military, as providing historical support for their claims to the South China Sea. , In February 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama initiated the US-ASEAN Summit at Sunnylands in Rancho Mirage, California for closer engagement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. For a while, the Declaration seemed to keep conflict at bay. Vietnam 1：Southwest Cay 2：Sand Cay 3：Namyit Island 4：Sin Cowe Island 5：Spratly Island 6：Amboyna Cay 7：Grierson Reef [zh] 8：Central London Reef [zh] 9：Pearson Reef [zh] 10：Barque Canada Reef [zh] 11：West London Reef [zh] 12：Ladd Reef 13：Discovery Great Reef [zh] 14：Pigeon Reef [zh] 15：East London Reef [zh] 16：Alison Reef [zh] 17：Cornwallis South Reef 18：Petley Reef [zh] 19：South Reef [zh] 20：Collins Reef 21：Lansdwone Reef [zh] 22：Bombay Castle 23：Prince of Wales Bank [zh] 24：Vanguard Bank [zh] 25：Prince Consort Bank [zh] 26：Grainger Bank [zh] 27：Alexandra Bank [zh] 28：Orleana Shoal [zh] 29：Kingston Shoal [zh] First, it wishes to exercise control, or at least a veto, over resource exploitation, including both fisheries and oil and gas exploration. Sean A. Mirski practices a combination of appellate and international law at Arnold & Porter in Washington, DC, with a focus on public international, national security and foreign relations law.  On 2 May 2014 the platform was moved near to the Paracel Islands, a move Vietnam stated violated their territorial claims. 76. all other claimants combined over the history of their claims, Civil Liberties and Constitutional Rights. By May 1939 the Japanese had laid claim and occupied the Paracel and Spratly Islands. The construction of the islands has been completed. , Following the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruling on 12 July 2016, Indonesia called on all parties involved in the territorial dispute to exercise self-restraint and to respect applicable international laws. A small outcropping of sand occasionally breaks the vast expanse of the South China Sea. The occupation and/or control of most parts of the Spratly and Paracel islands has not changed significantly since the middle of 1990s. South China Sea Sanya Jinyu Guanyin. The Declaration sought to establish a framework for the eventual negotiation of a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea.  The PRC had obtained a permit from the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission to build five observation posts for the conduction of ocean surveys, and one of the permitted observation posts was allowed to be located in the Spratly islands region.  Two years later the North Vietnamese government claimed that the People's Republic of China is the lawful claimant of the islands, while South Vietnam took control of the Paracel Islands. Worse, the stakes are high: the Sea is one of the primary routes for international trade, and many claimants believe that the Sea hides bountiful oil reserves in addition to its plentiful fishing stocks. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was concluded in 1982 and came into force in 1994, established a legal framework intended to balance the economic and security interests of coastal states with those of seafaring nations. The PRC had fought a brief border war with the Soviet Union in 1969 and did not want to have a Soviet presence near its coast, which is why China resorted to "counterattack in self-defense". Since 2013, the PRC has resorted to island building in the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands region. The disputes are further entrenched by rampant nationalism, as each claimant attaches symbolic value to the South China Sea islands that far exceeds their objective material wealth. , In Spring 2010, PRC officials reportedly communicated to US officials that the South China Sea was "an area of 'core interest' that is as non-negotiable" and on par with Taiwan and Tibet on the national agenda. South China Sea, one of the world’s busiest waterways, is subject to several overlapping territorial disputes involving China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei. , The sweeping maritime claims of gas and oil rich territory maintained and disputed by Australia against the tiny country of East Timor and flouting of international law have been compared to the situation in the South China Sea, causing the East Timorese government to deprecate China's claims and stance.  However, parts of China's unilaterally claimed nine-dash line overlap Indonesia's exclusive economic zone near the Natuna islands. ", "China paper warns India off Vietnam oil deal", "South China Sea: India should avoid rushing in where enen US exercises caution", "China warns India on South China Sea exploration projects", "China Hedges Over Whether South China Sea Is a 'Core Interest' Worth War", "U.S. sees crisis fears easing over South China Sea", "China paper warns of "sound of cannons" in sea disputes", "China May Resort to Force in Sea Disputes, Global Times Says", "How China's Enormous Fishing Fleet Is Being Used As a Surrogate Navy", "China tests two new airports in disputed South China Sea islands", "China lands more civilian planes on Fiery Cross reef", Beijing tells Duterte it won’t honor South China Sea ruling, "China's New 2019 Defense White Paper: An Open Strategic Challenge to the United States, But One Which Does Not Have to Lead to Conflict", "In UN Speech, Duterte Stiffens Philippines' Stance on the South China Sea", "China's multilateralism and the South China Sea Conflict: Quest for hegemonic stability?  Further Indonesian campaigns against foreign fishermen resulted in the destruction of 23 fishing boats from Malaysia and Vietnam on 5 April 2016.  On 21 March 2016, minister for fisheries and maritime affairs Susi Pudjiastuti summoned the Chinese ambassador, Xie Feng, and discussed this matter. This initial submission unleashed a flurry of notes verbales from the other claimants, who objected to the two nation’s claims. This time, though, the scramble was spurred by indications that oil lurked beneath the waters of the South China Sea. , In 2012, the United States State Department press statement identified the PRC as an assertive state in the region and communicated the United States worries about the developments in the area. Territorial claim involves China, Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.  On 29 May 2012, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry expressed concern over this development, stating that "non-claimant Association of South East Asian Nations countries and countries outside the region have adopted a position of not getting involved into territorial disputes. Security Minister Luhut Panjaitan said it was meant to send a "clear message" that Indonesia was "very serious in its effort to protect its sovereignty". The article referenced incidents earlier that year involving the Philippines and South Korea detaining PRC fishing boats in the region. In response, both South and North Vietnam reinforced their remaining garrisons and seized several other unoccupied features.  Historical accounts note that at least France had controlled some of the features in the region during the 1930s. The Paracel Islands are clustered in the northwest corner of the Sea, and the Spratly Islands in the southeast corner. Thus far, Beijing has not complied with these entreaties, and it is unclear what the next twist or turn in the story of the South China Sea will be. China and several of its neighbours have been involved in a decades-long dispute over who controls the South China Sea. As well, due to depletion of the fishing resources in their maritime areas, they were forced to fish in the neighbouring countries' areas.  80 percent of China's energy imports and 39.5 percent of China's total trade passes through the South China Sea. Which States Support the 'Unwilling and Unable' Test? China has been blocking fishermen from a reef near the Philippines for four years, in another flash point in the dispute over the South China Sea.  The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) stated that they did not recognize the tribunal and insisted that the matter should be resolved through bilateral negotiations with other claimants. , Thailand as one of the member of ASEAN played a coordinating role in facilitating China and ASEAN members involved in the dispute in hope of reaching peaceful resolution. Via this meeting, Wang Yi, the Chinese Foreign Minister called for a joint development of resources in South China Sea. , Although Indonesia is not part of claims in the South China Sea dispute, after Joko Widodo became President of the country in 2014, he instituted a policy in 2015 that, if any foreign fishermen were caught illegally fishing in Indonesian waters, their vessels would be destroyed.  As of May 2019, the United States has conducted four freedom of navigation operations in the Spratlys during the early 2019. They see the South China Sea as an important source of U.S.-China strategic rivalry and even assert that conflict between the two countries over the South China Sea is inevitable. , Prior to the dispute, fishermen from involved countries tended to enter each other's controlled islands and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) leading to conflicts with the authorities that controlled the areas as they were unaware of the exact borders. This occurred during a visit by Duterte to Beijing, with discussions between the two leaders. However, Beijing has never officially clarified what the line is meant to signify.  After the war, Imperial Japan had to relinquish control of the islands in the South China Sea in the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco which, however, did not specify the new status of the islands.  On 27 October 2015, the US destroyer USS Lassen navigated within 12 nautical miles of reclaimed land in the Subi Reef as the first in a series of "Freedom of Navigation Operations".  On 8–9 November 2015, two US B-52 strategic bombers flew near artificial Chinese-built islands in the area of the Spratly Islands and were contacted by Chinese ground controllers but continued their mission undeterred. However, the next half century saw accelerating interest in the South China Sea. Faced with this pushback, China withdrew the rig in mid-July, a month ahead of schedule. , The state-owned China Offshore Exploration Corp. planned to spend 200 billion RMB (US$30 billion) in the next 20 years to exploit oil in the region, with the estimated production of 25 million metric tons of crude oil and natural gas per annum, at a depth of 2000 meters within the next five years. The Japanese government now considers the territorial status of these islands ‘undetermined.’", On 25 July 2020 Australia rejected China's claims to the South China Sea and filed a statement with the United Nations that said: "Australia rejects any claims to internal waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf based on such baselines," and there is "no legal basis" to draw the nine-dash line around the Four Sha archipelagos, Paracel and Spratly Islands or low-tide maritime zones. Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between the PRC, Taiwan, and Vietnam. And, finally, the disputes are also tinged by great power politics as China and the United States begin to jostle each other for control of the international order.  However, the PRC's complaints halted the exploration. Executive Summary.  The Chinese Foreign Ministry asked the United States to maintain a neutral position on the issue. ", "Resource Sharing and Joint Development in the South China Sea: Exploring Avenues of Cooperation", "CMOL – Camago-Malampaya Oil Leg Project", Map of the Philippines showing the location of Palawan, "Oil Becoming Code for Sovereignty in Contested South China Sea | Voice of America - English", "The South China Sea: Oil, Maritime Claims, and U.S.—China Strategic Rivalry", "China reportedly threatens Vietnam into ending energy exploration in South China Sea", "Vietnam pins hopes on Japan to face down Beijing in South China Sea oil hunt", "chiefgroup.com.hk 02883 CHINA OILFIELD SERVICES LIMITED Company Profile", "Vietnam says China's oil rig movement into Sth China Sea is "illegal, "China urges against Vietnamese interference in territorial water exploration", "China fired at Filipino fishermen in Jackson atoll", "Sarawak fishermen missing after allegedly encroaching into Indonesian waters", "Filipino fishermen detained, beat up by Malaysian navy", "Việt Nam protests Indonesian attack on fishermen", "Vietnam protests deadly shooting of fisherman by Indonesian navy", "Philippine coast guard kills Taiwanese fisherman in disputed waters", "Indonesia's harsh response to illegal fishing: Blowing up ships", "Indonesia sinks boats from China, PH, others to deter illegal fishing—reports", "China's Coast Guard Rams Fishing Boat to Free It From Indonesian Authorities", "Indonesia protests against Chinese 'breach of sovereignty, "Indonesia Blows Up 23 Foreign Fishing Boats to Send a Message", "Vietnam 'Deeply Concerned' by Indonesia's War on Illegal Fishing", "Biggest number of Vietnamese fishermen to be released", "Killing of Vietnamese Fisherman in Contested Waters Sparks Outrage", "Fishing association claims Philippine boat crew shot dead Vietnamese fisherman", "Vietnam orders investigation into the shooting death of a fisherman in Vietnamese waters", "Philippines building up fleet in S. China Sea to counter Chinese", South China Sea set to dominate Singapore security summit – Reuters, 5 highlights of Shangri-La Dialogue 2016 – The Straits Times, What is the Shangri-La Dialogue and why is it so important? , The agreement was described by the PRC's assistant foreign minister, Liu Zhenmin, as "an important milestone document for cooperation among China and ASEAN countries". In 2012, Beijing bore out some of these concerns when it snatched Scarborough Shoal away from the Philippines. China followed shortly thereafter with a carefully coordinated seaborne invasion of several islands. The South China Sea dispute is ostensibly over jurisdiction and sovereignty of islands, reefs and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in South China Sea. Additionally, over the last year, Beijing has launched an accelerating land reclamation campaign across the South China Sea. Although other claimants have reclaimed land in the past, China has reclaimed 2,000 acres of new land, more than “all other claimants combined over the history of their claims,” according to the U.S. Department of Defense. In summer 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague’s rule in terms of China and the Philippines’ territorial disputes in the South China Sea caught worldwide attention.  In 1976, gas was discovered following the drilling of a well. Only 20 left in stock - order soon. … Analysts believe it indicates divisions within the group on how to respond to China's maritime strategy.  The new U.S. strategy is to be unpredictable and deploy ships to the area without notice.  Offshore exploration activities in 2011 increased Vietnam's proven oil reserves to be the third largest in the Asia-Pacific region. When the Communist Party of China took over mainland China and formed the People's Republic of China in 1949, the line was adopted and revised to nine dashes/dots, as endorsed by Zhou Enlai. Control of the South China Sea is the most contentious and explosive diplomatic issue in east Asia, with China asserting sovereignty over maritime areas that span 3.5m square kilometres but … The South China Sea Disputes and the US–China Contest:International Law and Geopolitics (Series on Contemporary China Book 43) by James C Hsiung. Several bilateral and multilateral approaches have been utilised to attempt to manage the tensions involved in the South China Sea territorial disputes. , A Taiwanese fisherman was machine gunned to death by the coast guard of the Philippines in May 2013. , Until late 2016, most fishing vessels blown up by Indonesian authorities were Vietnamese fishing vessels. Beijing has also begun construction of infrastructure on much of this reclaimed land, including an airstrip capable of receiving military aircraft. Thai-China relationship was generally seen as positive. In the years following the announcement by the PRC ministry, the claims regarding the South China Sea islands intensified. In the second part (which will run later this week), I will introduce the primary legal issues underlying the disputes. In response to this announcement, Beijing issued a warning and said that she would not allow any country to violate China's territorial waters in the name of "Freedom of Navigation". ", In July 2014, Professor Alan Dupont of the University of New South Wales was reported as saying that the Chinese government appeared to be directing its fishing fleet into disputed waters as a matter of policy. In 1974, the PRC got a non-involvement promise from the United States when it occupied the Yagong Island and the Crescent Group from the South Vietnam. , Competing claims in the oil and gas-rich South China Sea have stifled the development and exploitation of these resources.  China's 1958 declaration described China's claims in the South China Sea islands based on the nine-dotted line map. We hope the foreign countries do not get involved in South China Sea dispute.  However, the country is a net importer of oil products. , Indonesia challenged the Chinese nine-dash historical claim by arguing that if the historical claims can be used on presenting the territorial naval claims, Indonesia might also use its historical claims on the South China Sea by referring to the ancient influence of the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires. , Singapore has reiterated that it is not a claimant state in the South China Sea dispute and has offered to play a neutral role in being a constructive conduit for dialogue among the claimant states. Thailand's first attempt was hosting the ASEAN–China Senior Officials' Meeting Retreat in Pattaya, Thailand 2012.  Sources closer to the Pentagon have also said that the US administration is planning to deploy some more naval assets within 12 nautical miles of the Spratly Islands. He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard Law School, where he served as Supreme Court Chair for the Harvard Law Review.  The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific is the "Track Two" forum for dialogue on security issues. In at least seven locations, Chinese vessels have poured tons of sand to expand the size of features occupied by China. , Teodoro Locsin Jr., the Filipino Secretary of Foreign Affairs, said the Philippines was building a maritime fleet that could swarm areas in the South China Sea. Executive Summary Introduction The South China Sea disputes concern the Chinese claim to rights within the nine-dash line it has drawn in the South China Sea. The Indian Navy further clarified that "[t]here was no confrontation involving the INS Airavat. 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The People's Republic of China) | PCA-CPA", "Tribunal Rejects Beijing's Claims in South China Sea", "China's South China Sea Claims Dashed by Hague Court Ruling", "France, Germany, UK recognize PH win vs. China in South China Sea row", "An interactive look at claims on the South China Sea", "China´s Strategy in the South China Sea", "Declaration of the Government of the People´s Republic of China on China´s Territorial Sea", "Declaration by the Government of the French Republic", "Presidential Decree no. The parties promised “to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability including, among others, refraining from action of inhabiting on the presently uninhabited islands, reefs, shoals, cays, and other features and to handle their differences in a constructive manner.”. , Chinese claims in the South China sea are delineated in part by the nine-dash line.  There are several disputes, each of which involves a different collection of countries: Legend： The disputes involve both maritime boundaries and islands. For that reason, after suffering their cataclysmic defeat at the hands of Mao’s Communists, Chiang Kai-shek’s forces retreated to Taiwan and abandoned their stations in the South China Sea. The disputes in the South China Sea have the potential to ignite a broader regional conflagration. " The Indo-Vietnamese deal was also denounced by the Chinese state-run newspaper Global Times. Indonesia quickly dismissed China's claim, asserting that China's nine-dash line claim over parts of the Natuna islands has no legal basis. 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